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Around 1845, the name transferred to the tuber itself.The origin of the word "spud" has erroneously been attributed to an 18th-century activist group dedicated to keeping the potato out of Britain, calling itself The Society for the Prevention of Unwholesome Diet .In the Andes, where the species is indigenous, some other closely related species are cultivated.Potatoes were introduced to Europe in the second half of the 16th century by the Spanish.Tubers form in response to decreasing day length, although this tendency has been minimized in commercial varieties.After flowering, potato plants produce small green fruits that resemble green cherry tomatoes, each containing about 300 seeds.Cross-breeding has been done repeatedly to transfer resistances to certain pests and diseases from the gene pool of wild species to the gene pool of cultivated potato species. There are two triploid species (with 36 chromosomes): S. The Andean potato is adapted to the short-day conditions prevalent in the mountainous equatorial and tropical regions where it originated; the Chilean potato, however, native to the Chiloé Archipelago, is adapted to the long-day conditions prevalent in the higher latitude region of southern Chile.Genetically modified varieties have met public resistance in the United States and in the European Union. Nonetheless, genetic testing of the wide variety of cultivars and wild species affirms that all potato subspecies derive from a single origin in the area of present-day southern Peru and extreme northwestern Bolivia (from a species in the Solanum brevicaule complex).
It is the world's fourth-largest food crop, following maize, wheat, and rice.As of 2014, China led the world in potato production, and, together with India, produced 37% of the world's potatoes.The English word potato comes from Spanish patata (the name used in Spain).They belong to eight or nine species, depending on the taxonomic school.Apart from the 5,000 cultivated varieties, there are about 200 wild species and subspecies, many of which can be cross-bred with cultivated varieties. There is one pentaploid cultivated species (with 60 chromosomes): S. There are two major subspecies of Solanum tuberosum: andigena, or Andean; and tuberosum, or Chilean.